A widespread response to the pressures placed on the ecological condition of rivers is the design and implementation of environmental flow regimes in domestic regulatory frameworks for water. Environmental interests in water are not confined to hydrological functioning but include relationships between water resources and human cultural and economic livelihoods, including those of Indigenous communities. Since the mid-1980s there has been some provision for environmental flows in Chilean law. However, the legal and policy requirements are limited in scope and have been poorly implemented by regulatory institutions. In this article we critically examine the treatment of environmental flows in Chilean legal and policy frameworks. We argue that there is an urgent need for a comprehensive minimum flow regime in Chile to protect the environmental qualities of rivers, which must also reflect and provide for Indigenous water rights and interests. The developing constitutional crisis in Chile, the most significant political crisis since the end of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-90), highlights the need to revisit the sensitive and unresolved issues of water governance and equity.
Legislation emerging from Treaty of Waitangi settlements provide Maori, the Indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, with new opportunities to destabilize and decolonize the colonial knowledge, processes and practices that contribute towards negative material and metaphysical impacts on their rohe [traditional lands and waters]. In this article we focus our attention on the Nga Wai o Maniapoto (Waipa River) Act 2012 and the Deed of Settlement signed between the Crown (the New Zealand government) and Ngati Maniapoto (the tribal group with ancestral authority over the Waipa River) as an example of how the law in Aotearoa New Zealand is increasingly stretched beyond settler-colonial confines to embrace legal and ontological pluralism. We illustrate how this Act serves as the foundation upon which Ngati Maniapoto are seeking to restore, manage, and enhance the health of their river. Such legislation, we argue, provides a far higher degree of recognition of Maori rights and interests both as an outcome of the settlement process and by strengthening provisions under the Resource Management Act 1991 regarding the role of Maori in resource management. We conclude by suggesting that co-governance and co-management arrangements hold great potential for transforming river management by recognizing and accommodating ontological and epistemological pluralism, which moves Aotearoa New Zealand closer to achieving sustainable and just river futures for all.
This article investigates the relationship between legal personality for nature and Indigenous philosophies by comparing two cases: the Ecuadorian Constitution of 2008 and the 2014 Te Urewera Act of Aotearoa, New Zealand. Through these case studies the article considers the nature of Indigenous relations with the concept of rights of nature, arguing that this relation is primarily strategic, not genealogical. The article engages with the concept of legal personality and shows that it is not a direct translation of Indigenous conceptions, but rather a potential straitjacket for Indigenous emancipatory politics. The radical character of Indigenous ontologies is not fully reflected in the concept of legal personality. Furthermore, the way in which rights are granted to the natural environment is an important part of the effect that such rights might have on Indigenous communities. Despite some affinities between rights of the environment and Indigenous philosophies, overstating the connection might constrain the radical political and legal implications of Indigenous thought.
The rapid emergence of rights of Nature over the past decade across multiple contexts has fostered increasing awareness, recognition, and, ultimately, acceptance of rights of Nature by the global community. Yet, too often, both scholarly publications and news articles bury the lede - namely, that the most transformative cases of rights of Nature have been consistently influenced and often actually led by Indigenous peoples. In this article we explore the ontologies of rights of Nature and earth jurisprudence, and the intersections of these movements with the leadership of Indigenous peoples in claiming and giving effect to their own rights (while acknowledging that not all Indigenous peoples support rights of Nature). Based on early observations, we discern an emerging trend of increased efficacy, longevity, and transformative potential being linked to a strongly pluralist approach of lawmaking and environmental management. A truly transformative and pluralist ecological jurisprudence can be achieved only by enabling, and empowering, Indigenous leadership.
Irrigation expansion driven by a growing global food demand is threatening the sustainability of scarce water resources. An exemplar is the Ica Valley in Peru which has experienced significant agricultural transformation over the last three decades with uncontrolled abstractions leading to over-exploitation of the Ica-Villacuri aquifer. This paper critically assesses the impacts of agricultural expansion on the longterm sustainability of groundwater resources in the Ica Valley. We apply a combination of spatial analysis and irrigation modelling by farming type (large and small-scale), followed by a multi-criteria assessment on irrigation water use. Historical trends in cropped area were analysed using Landsat satellite imagery to identify agricultural expansion and the changing composition between large and small-scale farms. The blue water footprint (WFblue) for croplands was calculated distinguishing between surface and groundwater abstractions for eight disaggregated geographical zones within the Ica Valley. The economic benefits of water consumption were assessed using the water productivity indicator, and the environmental sustainability of water resources spatially evaluated using a monthly blue water sustainability index and adapted version of the groundwater debt. The analyses showed that the groundwater footprint accounts for 87% of the total WFblue (483 Mm(3)) with 286 Mm(3) groundwater consumed under unsustainable conditions (exceeding groundwater recharge). The highest water productivity (2.4-5.4 sol/ton) occurs in zones with intensive groundwater abstractions and where most large-farms are located, but it is also where the sustainability issue is most acute. Modelling showed that based on existing climate conditions and cropping patterns, irrigated agriculture is locally unsustainable throughout the valley, with the exception of small-scale farming in the peri-urban and middle valley areas. Around 10% of total aquifer recharge results from small-scale irrigated farming, whereas recharge from large scale farming is negligible. The greatest impacts occur in zones dominated by large-scale farms, where a period of 3.7-5.9 years is estimated to be needed to replenish water resources consumed by agricultural production. There is thus an urgent need to manage water resources more effectively and promote more sustainable use of water to protect both traditional and agro-export agricultural practices as well as allocations for urban water supply and the environment. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Because of the prevailing issue of water scarcity, the application of non-aqueous media Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) was employed in the chemical fiber dyeing and washing process. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis have been carried out to analyze the penetration of D5 into the interior of nylon fiber and its distribution in fiber cross-section. The solubility of pure disperse dye in D5 has been measured to check the feasibility of dispersing agent exclusion from dyeing formulation. For developing the solvent dyeing and washing process for nylon, nylon fabric was dyed with pure disperse dyes in D5 solvent and washed with D5 without any process auxiliaries. Findings from CLSM and XPS spectrum showed that D5 can diffuse into the nylon fabric surface with and without the addition of accelerant. And accelerant doesn't affect D5's ability to penetrate and uniform distribution within the fiber structure. As compared to aqueous dyeing, the 30 and 43 percent increase in K/S was achieved for azo and anthraquinone dyes by using D5 as dyeing media. Furthermore, more than 99 percent solvent can be recycled or recovered. The level dyeing with commercial dyes under conventional dyeing conditions in D5 solvent dyeing media prove the commercial feasibility of this dyeing technology. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inasmuch as channels are designed to mitigate continues sedimentation, sediment transport models have been developed to calculate flow velocity to keep sediment particles in motion. In order to promote the computation capability of sediment transport models, recently machine learning algorithms have attracted interests, extensively. However, accuracy of such a model is attributed to the range of data and applied technique for model construction. For this purpose, the current study scrutinizes the applicability of "non-deposition with deposited bed" (NDB) concept for design of large channels applying hybrid machine learning algorithms. Through the modeling, firstly, conventional adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) technique is applied to develop a stand-alone model. In furtherance of improving the model's performance, the ANFIS is hybridized with invasive weed optimization (IWO) algorithm to construct a hybrid ANFIS- IWO model. As a benchmark, the ANFIS is further hybridized with classical genetic algorithm (GA) to compare with ANFIS-IWO outcomes. Furthermore, the developed machine learning models are compared to multigene genetic programming (MGP) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) stand-alone machine learning results reported in the literature and classical regression models by means of variety of statistical performance measurements. Hybridization of ANFIS with IWO, enhances its accuracy with a factor of 30%. Respecting to the models performance examination, the ANFIS-IWO model is found superior to its alternatives for sediment transport computation. The thickness of the deposited bed and deposited bed width are found as effective parameters for sediment transport modeling in open channels with a bed deposit. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Incorporating insulation material in the building envelope is one of the simple yet effective passive techniques aimed at mitigating the energy consumption in buildings. The development and utilization of sustainable materials with heat insulating capacity as an alternative to synthetic insulations is a promising path towards reduced carbon footprint of buildings. The insulation potential of straw, an agricultural waste, in the context of the wide-ranging climate of India is the focus of the current work. Cooling and/or heating load analysis over 24 h of a representative summer and winter day is performed through transient numerical analysis for five climatic zones of India. Three building envelope configurations possible with retrofitting straw insulation (placed on the outside or inside or equally on either side) over existing walls/roof are compared. Four different thicknesses (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm) of the straw insulation are considered for analysis. Recommendations of envelope configuration with insulation are proposed based on energy and cost savings for the different climatic zones. Overall, the case of straw insulation split on either side performs the best. Energy savings in the range of 67-96% is achievable with the addition of just 10 cm thick straw across different climatic zones. The work also presents a comparison of the straw envelope performance against different types of envelopes based on sustainable materials found in literature. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The safe operating space as defined by the Planetary Boundaries framework can be used as an environmental sustainability reference in absolute environmental sustainability assessments (AESAs). In AESAs, the safe operating space must be distributed among human activities so impacts associated with an activity can be related to its assigned share of the safe operating space to assess if the activity can be considered absolute sustainable. To ensure choices concerning sharing principles in AESA are deliberate, there is a need for understanding the distributive justice theory underlying the sharing principles. This study provides a framework for determining and communicating the distributive justice theories that underlie the choice of sharing principles in AESA. To comprehensively describe a sharing principle in relation to distributive justice theories, seven dimensions must be defined, i.e. target, currency, pattern, geographical scope, temporal scope, clauses, and constraints. We conducted a review of sharing principles used in AESAs in relation to contemporary distributive justice theories. 18 studies were identified with 34 sharing principles being applied. The most commonly applied sharing principle is equal per capita sharing of the safe operating space among countries or individuals. This was often combined with utilitarian principles for sharing among industrial units. Based on the review and analysis of the results, we provide recommendations on best practice for defining sharing principles in AESAs systematically based on distributive justice theories and recommendations for further research. The framework developed in this study provide a first step towards a systematic and informed selection of sharing principles used in AESAs. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this paper is to assess whether a relation exists between stock market valuation and the extent to which Italian listed companies disclose information on their digitalization initiatives. The authors posit that the disclosure of digitalization-related information is a form of intellectual capital disclosure, which provides potentially value-relevant information to investors. Additionally, it is assumed that the reputation for corporate sustainability affects the relation between digitalization disclosure and stock market valuation. To test the aforementioned hypotheses, the authors first quantified the extent of digitalization disclosure by content-analysing the annual reports of 75 Italian listed companies for the years 2011-2017, and then they examined the value relevance of digitalization-related information accounting for the role of corporate sustainability. Empirical results suggest 1) that stock market participants incorporate digitalization-related information into their business valuation process, and 2) that firms with better reputation for corporate sustainability achieve higher valuations from disclosing their digitalization efforts. The potential contribution of this study is manifold: first, it extends prior research on the value relevance of IC disclosure by broadening its scope to include digitalization-related disclosure and evidencing the (moderating) role of corporate sustainability in firm valuation; second, it provides some empirical substance to the discussion on how to measure the value a company extracts from digitalization efforts; and third, it may support the case for increased non-financial disclosure as called for by accounting regulators and standard setters. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plastics are the paradigmatic material of the current era. Plastics' trade articulates interest in trading partnerships and concerns about trade security. We focus on the International Plastic Resin Trade Network (IPRTN) and analyze its spatiotemporal evolution in 1988-2017 from global, regional, and national scales. As a profile of globalization, the network became increasingly interconnected under the combined effect of the involvement of more participating countries, the increase in the closeness of trade links, and the increase in trade volume, which grew by 0.4-fold, 7.7-fold, and 14.9-fold, respectively. Despite the growth, IPRTN maintained fairly stable topological characteristics including small-world property (average path length, 1.95 +/- 0.10; clustering coefficient, 0.63 +/- 0.06), high reciprocity (reciprocity value, 0.54 +/- 0.03), disassortative mixing (assortativity value, -0.46 +/- 0.23), and exponential degree distribution. Generally, the plastic resin trade was spatially heterogeneous with high intraregional trade proportions (1988-1997, 78.4%; 1998-2007, 79.9%; 2008-2017, 75.1%), and Europe, Asia, and North America were the dominating regions. These facts brought IPRTN with a regionally dependent community structure. Five communities were finally formed: the Middle East-Africa community, the Eastern Europe community, the Western Europe community, the Americas community, and the East Asia-Southeast Asia-Oceania community. We found that the US-China plastic resin trade was mainly complementary. Thus, mutual tariffs in the US-China trade war, which covers plastic resins, will cause adverse effects and need to be resolved through active consultations. To ensure trade security, we remind countries with poor trade robustness to pay attention to changes in trade policies of these critical trade players and to enrich trade channels. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liquid guayule natural rubber (LGNR) was produced by thermal degradation of guayule natural rubber and tested as a renewable alternative to naphthenic oil (NO) processing aid in natural rubber (Hevea and guayule rubber) and synthetic (styrene-butadiene) rubber composites filled with carbon black (CB). Processing oils are rubber additives commonly used to improve the processability of a compound. Most processing oils, like NO, are petroleum-based, and negatively impact the carbon footprint of the rubber industry. Moreover, these aids act as diluents that lower the mechanical performance of the resultant rubber products. The energy consumption of rubber compounding, mechanical properties and crosslinking networks of natural and synthetic rubber composites made with LGNR were characterized. LGNR effectively helped the compounds mix as demonstrated by 13-21% lower energy consumption compared to compounds mixed without processing aids. Moreover, unlike NO, LGNR acted as an active additive in the vulcanization reaction. Tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus at 100% strain and hardness increased when NO was replaced with LGNR in the compounds. The higher mechanical properties may be explained by additional crosslinking networks formed between LGNR and the rubber matrices and strong LGNR-CB interactions. LGNR, as a renewable processing aid, can address rising performance goals, and reduce carbon footprint for rubber products. In conclusion, LGNR provides the same benefits as conventional diluent processing aids, enhances the properties of the final material, and is produced from a renewable plant source. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This systematic review provides an overview of the various perspectives that investigate alternative trade arrangements in the global food sector. With child labor in cocoa production, health issues of plantation workers in the global south and unsustainable consumption patterns of consumers in the global north, trade arrangements in the global food sector remain on largely unsustainable pathways with vast consequences for a sustainable development. Alternative Trade arrangements have been proposed as one way to tackle the above-mentioned issues and have been increasingly investigated through the scientific literature. However, evidence about the impact of alternative trade arrangements on consumption in the global north or production in the global south is disputed. While there have been efforts to review the scientific literature, existing reviews have focused only on specific aspects (e.g. consumer perception or effectiveness of producer certification schemes). We therefore systematically reviewed 649 peer-reviewed publications that investigated food products and alternative trade arrangements to create a more comprehensive overview of the strand of literature, its epistemic similarities and differences. We found that the scientific literature is predominantly investigating the certified market, focusing on certification schemes and its implementations. Furthermore, we show that the literature is either focusing on producers or consumers and has a strong bias towards social aspects of sustainability. Using a quantitative word-based analysis, we identified three substantially different clusters: first, producer impact assessment, dominated by econometrics; second, contextual producer perspectives, emphasizing the political and social sphere through qualitative single case study analyses; and third consumers' attitudes and willingness to pay for ethical products, characterized by psychological and econometric measures. Based on our findings we propose three future directions for research in the field of alternative trade. First, scholars should put a stronger emphasis on going beyond the impact assessment of certification schemes and examine underlying aspects such as information asymmetries, smallholder empowerment and ethical consumption behavior. Second, interconnections between social and ecological factors needs further investigation as both factors have a strong influence on each other. Third, scholars should put a stronger focus on participatory approaches to gain a deeper understanding of root causes of unjust trade arrangements and enhance mutual understanding of scientific perceptions and realworld practices. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study intends to develop a sustainable strategy for selection of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) through a series of experiments and using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques. The mechanical, environmental and economic aspects of RAC were integrated to evaluate the most sustainable concrete, which may be appropriate for varied concrete applications. 25 mixes were prepared by replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) at mass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, to span a target compressive strength range of 17-35 MPa. RCA were derived from uncontaminated precast structural members only, which may have superior properties to aggregate from construction and demolition waste. The fresh and hardened properties of RAC were assessed. Varying superplasticizer contents were used to control the reduction in workability, as well as to examine the correlation between 1-day compressive strength of mixes with superplasticizer and 7- and 28-day strength of corresponding mixes without superplasticizer. The CO2 footprint and volume of raw materials were quantified as environmental impact and cost was also evaluated for each mix. The results indicated that with RCA content the compressive strength reduced but within acceptable range, CO2 footprint and cost was also declined, and raw material conservation was recorded. Finally, a framework was employed for sustainable selection (considering technical, environmental and economic parameters) of RAC, with target compressive strength as the main goal. Three compressive strengths (20, 25 and 30 MPa) were set as target and the corresponding ranking of mixes was established using two MCDM techniques; AHP and TOPSIS. Some variation in the results was found, but both techniques allowed sustainable selection of RAC. (c) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Generation of fines and ultra-fines is a concept that mining and metallurgical sectors can never shy away since the beginning of coal exploration. These coal fines and ultra-fines are what coal mines regarded as waste material without economic value until the present moment. Poor technologies in the past led to stockpiling of large quantities of fines and ultra-fines. Increase in mechanization in the coal mining industry has also led to the generation of large quantities of coal fines and ultra-fines. Several techniques in the mineral processing sector have been explored to beneficiate the coal fines and ultra-fines. The explored beneficiating technologies include enhanced gravity separation, oil agglomeration, flotation, flocculation, spirals, water only cyclone and dense medium cyclone. These beneficiating technologies have their own limitations when treating fine and ultrafine coal. Major limitations were operation cost and separation efficiency. However, many researchers have improved these beneficiation technologies in terms of cost and separation efficiencies producing clean coal product that meet the end user product specifications. This paper reviews recent developments in beneficiation technologies of coal fines and coal ultra-fines. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.